Archiv für Januar 2014

Jan 2014 31

Das alte Försterhaus – ein Opfer der Geschichte?


Der Landesbetrieb Forst Brandenburg wollte auch im Jahre 2014 die wohlwollende Bevölkerung mit einem schönen Kalender erfreuen und ließ, für eine (dort eingedruckte) Schutzgebühr von 3 EURO bzw. 5 EURO im Internet (und einen Aufwand von 7.500 EURO) einen solchen mit diesem schönen Titelblatt erstellen, der allerdings im Handel dann doch, wie die Märkische Oderzeitung berichtete, 10,85 EURO kosten sollte.

Forsthaus perfekt

 Auf der Seite 2 dieses Kalenders wurde zum Titelfoto von einem namentlich nicht genannten Verfasser folgendes mitgeteilt:

„Als Forsthaus „Rarangsee“ wurde das Anwesen 1935 auf Befehl des Reichsforstmeisters Göring im Zusammenhang mit dem Erweiterungsbau seines Landsitzes „Carinhall“ erbaut. Die Liegenschaft sollte als Musterbau für die zukünftige Bauweise von Forstdienstgehöften in der Schorfheide dienen.

Dieser Text ist sicherlich keine sprachliche Meisterleistung und auch sonst in kleineren Punkten nicht ganz zutreffend. Aber keiner von denen, die diesen Kalender gesehen haben – nicht nur der Unterzeichnete, sondern eine ganze Reihe anderer Personen – hat an dieser Darstellung Anstoß genommen. Auch die Verwendung „schwarzbrauner Hölzer“ scheint harmlos – siehe „Schwarzbraun ist die Haselnuß“ und „…sprang ein schwarzbraunes Mädel heraus…“ (ein etwas ulkiges Jägerlied aus „des Knaben Wunderhorn“, in welchem dieses Mädel dann „des jungfrischen Jägers Weib“ wird, nachdem der sie erst mit seinen großen Hunden bedroht hat – na ja, wer so was mag!).

Wie gesagt: keiner hat sich an diesem Kalenderblatt gestört.

Bis auf einen!

Als Jens-Uwe Schade das Deckblatt des neuen Hochglanz-Kalenders des Landesforstbetriebs sah, da war er nach seinen eigenen Worten „erst einmal ein paar Minuten sprachlos“ weiß die Berliner Zeitung am 14.01.2014. Denn die Revierförsterei sei kein normales Gebäude, sondern ein „Gebäude mit Geschichte“. Schade

Anschließend verwechselt Herr Schade dann allerdings das Forsthaus durchgängig mit Carinhall und meint, „Carinhall war kein unbeschwerter Ort und nicht einfach nur ein Sommersitz“. Vielmehr diente das Anwesen zeitweise als Machtzentrale. „Dort wurden auch Todesurteile unterschrieben“.

Wo er recht hat, hat er recht.

Aber was hat das mit dem mehrere Kilometer entfernten Forsthaus zu tun?  

 Herr Schade wird aktiv

Nun war man offensichtlich beim zuständigen Ministerium von dieser Kritik des Herrn Schade sichtlich beeindruckt. Denn der ist immerhin der Ministeriumssprecher und gilt deshalb im Hause sicherlich als ein Mann, der nicht nur das geschriebene Wort beherrscht, sondern auch ein waches Geschichtsbewusstsein besitzt. Hat er dieses doch schon einmal in einem auch noch von seinem Ministerium selbst herausgegebenen Buch (mit Stefan Adam) über die Bedeutung der Kartoffel in Brandenburg unter Beweis gestellt, welches den ungeheuer lustigen (allerdings einem uralten Witzgedicht entlehnten) Titel trägt:   Neues aus der Akte Pommes Fritz.

Pommes Fritz

Weil der Alte Fritz die Kartoffel in Preussen eingeführt hat, klar, nicht? Wußten Sie aber sicher schon. Zeigt uns aber: guter Mann, der Herr Schade. Und der, obwohl immerhin Ministeriumssprecher, war „erstmal sprachlos“. Für einen Sprecher schon ungewöhnlich!

Jedenfalls teilt uns die Berliner Zeitung am 14.01 unwidersprochen mit: „Schade informierte seinen Minister, am Montag stoppte das Ministerium die Auslieferung der 2000 Exemplare des Kalenders, der eigentlich Werbung für die Arbeit des Landesbetriebs machen sollte“. Alle erreichbaren Kalender wurden eingestampft, ihre Wiedergabe im Internet gelöscht. € 7.500 (aus Steuermitteln) in die Tonne getreten.

Seine Sorgen möchte man haben

Nun kann man durchaus über die Darstellung von Bauten diskutieren, auch kontrovers, die irgendein negatives, vor allem „braunes“ Gedankengut transportieren. Etliche Bauten des Dritten Reiches spiegeln sicherlich die seinerzeitige völkische Ideologie wieder. „Die Machthaber und deren Architekten und Planer beanspruchten, einen „nationalsozialistischen Stil“ auf Grundlage des ererbten Fundus europäischer Bau-Typologie und -Morphologie entwickelt zu haben“. Das mag allenfalls für bestimmte Bauten aus dieser Zeit gelten; schon beim Olympiastadion oder dem Finanzministerium oder dem Flughafen Tempelhof oder der Münchner Hochschule für Musik und Theater hätte ich da so meine Zweifel.

Aber vor allem für unser schönes Forsthaus, das zudem seit 1996 als Baudenkmal unter Schutz gestellt ist, gilt das nun beim besten Willen nicht. Es vermittelt sicherlich kein rechtes oder braunes oder sonst „faschistoides“ Gedankengut und eignet sich auch nicht als Wallfahrtsort für rechte Spinner – es sei denn, diese Posse hätte jetzt welche von denen aufgemüdet. Es gehört also nicht zu den „Früchten“, an denen man Nazis „erkennen“ kann (frei nach Matthäus 7, 17). Das gilt erkennbar auch für den Bildtext.

Ein engstirniges Geschichtsbewusstsein

aber macht das Leben ärmer. Denn die Tatsache, dass irgendein schönes oder eindrucksvolles oder historisch bedeutsames Bauwerk von einem Killer in Auftrag gegeben wurde, bedeutet nicht, dass es niemals auf Kalendern erscheinen dürfte – sondern eben nur, wenn es verwerfliche Gesinnung erkennbar transportiert. Aber mit diesem Geschichtsbewusstsein darf man, um nur mal drei zu nennen, dann weder die Cheops-Pyramide

 Gizeh

noch die Basilius Kathedrale von Iwan dem Schrecklichen (einem der richtig heftigen Killer der Geschichte)

 Basilius

noch das Colosseum in Rom auf Kalendern abbilden.

 Colosseum

SCHADE (!), nicht?

 Ihr Dr. Wolfgang Lipps

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Jan 2014 29

In any case you are free to disagree with me


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Jan 2014 28

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Jan 2014 27

Schwarzwild – die Population explodiert


wutzrotteSchwarzwildschäden können durch weidgerechte Bejagung nur ein wenig vermindert aber keineswegs verhindert werden!

Landnutzer bedrängen die Jagdpächter immer wieder: Schießt gefälligst mehr, Ihr tut zu wenig! Worauf wir Jäger immer wieder antworten: Wir tun was wir können, aber natürlich im Rahmen des Jagdrechts und des Tierschutzes!

Die Landnutzer aber glauben uns zumeist nicht.

Deshalb hier mal ein kleines Beispiel aus einem Schwarzwildgatter in Wriezen (Brandenburg), nachzulesen im neuesten Band 38 der „Beiträge zur Jagd- und Wildforschung“, S. 459. Hier beobachtete der Verfasser, Dipl.-Forsting. (FH) Conrad Philips, genau drei Schweine: den 7-jährigen Keiler Nuschke, die 6-jährige Bache Uschi und deren 5-jährige Tochter Lea. Alle profitieren auch im Gatter von den reichen Fraßmöglichkeiten, die unser Schwarzwild dauerhaft vorfindet, welches darüber hinaus in Biopflanzenschlägen und andernorts auch noch beste Deckung geboten bekommt.

Das Ergebnis der Beobachtung fasst Philips wie folgt zusammen:

Im Schwarzwildgatter Wriezen im Land Brandenburg konnte nachgewiesen werden, dass ausgehend von einem Keiler und zwei Bachen in 15 Monaten die Stärke der Rotte auf 40 Stücke Schwarzwild anstieg. Von 13 Frischlingen waren nur 3 weibliche Tiere vorhanden. Diese Frischlingsbachen rauschten im elften Lebensmonat und hatten durchschnittlich vier Frischlinge.

Selbst wenn man unterstellt, dass außerhalb eines Gatters vielleicht die Hälfte jeweils der Frischlinge der Witterung, sonstigen Einflüssen und/oder der Bejagung zum Opfer fällt, hätten die 2 Bachen in 15 Monaten immer noch rund 18 oder so neue Wutze in die Wildbahn entlassen. Wenn man dann noch der statistisch erwiesenen Tatsache Rechnung trägt, dass der Jäger nur beim jeweils zehnten Ansitz zu Schuss kommt (von mir aus bei jedem sechsten), dann wird klar:

Die schlauen Schweine sind uns haushoch überlegen, liebe Landnutzer!

Ihr

Dr. Wolfgang Lipps

Wutz scherenschnitt

 

 

 

 

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Jan 2014 27

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Jan 2014 26

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Jan 2014 25

I was in a total „bossy bad girl“ mode by the time we got


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Jan 2014 22

The Jays added another run in the 3rd


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Jan 2014 19

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Jan 2014 14

Wer nicht schießt, muss zahlen – Schadenstabelle pro Baum?


 

Waldschaden_1

Dieser Artikel in der „Märkischen Oderzeitung“ (MOZ) vom 9. Januar hat zu einer lebhaften Diskussion vorwiegend im Internet geführt. Die bewegt sich von töricht über abstrus bis ernsthaft, wie das immer so ist.

Aber so richtig sachlich sind die Beiträge und Wortmeldungen fast alle nicht.

Jedoch meint Axel Plümacher in jagdblog.blogspot.com ganz richtig, an dieser Diskussion müsse sich die Jägerschaft beteiligen: „Dazu braucht man gute Leute, dazu braucht´s Ideen“.

Beides haben wir – also: legen wir los!

Die Märkische Oderzeitung ist bekannt dafür, dass ihre Berichte über Jagd und Wald an zahlreichen Fehlern zu kranken pflegen – ziemlich unverständlich, wenn man bedenkt, dass diese Zeitung in Brandenburg, einem der waldreichsten und jagdlich bedeutendsten Bundesländer, zuhause ist. Dagegen ist halt kein Kraut gewachsen – Leserbriefe und Online-Kommentare sind eher zwecklos.

Nun muss man dem Blatt allerdings fairerweise zugute halten, dass keineswegs aller Unsinn auf das Konto des jeweiligen Redakteurs geht, denn etliches davon stammt auch von Gesprächspartnern, die im Laufe von zumeist ziemlich planlosen Befragungen – von Journalisten gern als „Recherche“ bezeichnet – geäußert werden.

Einige wenige Beispiele

Ein schöner Beleg für unsere unfreundliche Kritik ist der erwähnte Artikel. Neben seinem Kernthema „pauschalierter Waldschadens-Ersatz“, zu dem wir uns später noch äußern, wird wieder – vielleicht wäre der Artikel sonst zu kurz und das Autorenhonorar zu mickrig geworden – allerlei Falsches, Irreführendes oder Missverständliches berichtet. Wir wollen das nicht zu breit auswalzen, aber einiges reizt denn doch zum Widerspruch. So dürfte es eine Erfindung sein, dass es in Brandenburgs Wäldern so viel Wild gibt wie nie zuvor. Ebenso falsch ist die Behauptung, für das Feld sei der Wildschadenersatz klar geregelt, für den Wald nicht. Geradezu töricht ist es, wenn Behörden blauäugig empfehlen, die Jagdgenossenschaften – für den Wald dürften das stattdessen vorwiegend die Waldeigentümer sein – sollten mit den Jagdpächtern vollen Wildschadensersatz anstelle von Wildschadenspauschalen vereinbaren, das motiviere die Jäger zu höheren Abschüssen; das ist aus mehreren Gründen weder logisch noch vernünftig noch (gerade in Brandenburg) gesetzeskonform noch durchsetzbar. Und dass die Landbesitzer Wildschaden im Feld „quasi untereinander“ bezahlen, ist, mit Verlaub, Unsinn.

Ein Skandal, weil absolut rechtswidrig, und zudem unlogisch und schlichtweg dumm wäre es, wenn folgende Meldung der Zeitung stimmen würde: „Da eine Verlängerung der Jagdzeit in Bezug auf Rehböcke durch eine neue Verordnung vor zwei Jahren gescheitert war, wird den Förstern und Jägern nun offiziell vom Dienstherren empfohlen, Ausnahmegenehmigungen zum Abschuss vorwiegend von Rehböcken auch außerhalb der Jagdsaison zu beantragen.“ Hier hat sich der Autor Ulrich Thiessen hoffentlich verhört!

Aber lassen wir das mal gegenwärtig auf sich beruhen – Unsinn wird ja glücklicherweise auch durch „brutale Vereinfachung und hämmernde Wiederholung“ nicht richtiger. Kümmern wir uns lieber um den Versuch, Waldschäden durch Wild tabellarisch zu erfassen und damit Schadensersatzforderungen pauschal zu begründen – denn das geht in erster Linie uns an, die Jäger!

Die Schadenstabelle pro Baum?

Waldschaden_2Nun soll durch das Landeskompetenzzentrum Forst (LFE) in Eberswalde angeblich „für Brandenburg eine Schadenstabelle erarbeitet werden, die regelt, wie viel für einen verbissenen jungen Baum gezahlt werden muss. Die Summe wird genau nach Alter und Art des Baumes festgelegt und hängt davon ab, ob das Bäumchen überhaupt noch zum Holzertrag geeignet ist oder um wie viele Jahre sich sein Wachstum verzögert. Besonders berücksichtigt wird außerdem, ob durch den Verbiss ein geplanter Mischwald zu einer Monokultur wird.“

Auch hier hoffen wir, dass sich Herr Thiessen verhört hat, soll ja vorkommen. Denn die Schadensberechnung von Wildschäden im Wald ist eine höchst komplexe Angelegenheit, die zudem noch in vielerlei Hinsicht umstritten und ausserdem mit geltendem Zivilrecht nur schwer vereinbar ist. Und neu ist sie auch nicht, auch nicht in Tabellenform.

Mit einem tabellarisch festgelegten Wert pro Baum geht das nämlich nicht!

Nicht, dass es nicht schon an Versuchen gefehlt hätte, Wildschäden im Wald mit vereinfachten Formeln „gabelfertig und mundgerecht“ zu erfassen und festzulegen. Schon der Zeitungsartikel verweist auf das Gutachten des Deutschen Forstwirtschaftsrates vom Januar 2013, hat das aber weder gelesen noch gar kapiert – die Behauptung, danach würde ein Laubbaum mit € 1,20 plus 30 Cent je Lebensjahr und eine Kiefer mit 45 Cent zu entschädigen sein, ist, mit Verlaub, barer Unsinn. Das grundsätzlich tadellos begründete Papier, das eine Einigungsgrundlage für die gütliche Regelung von Forstschäden sein soll (deshalb heisst es auch „Bewertungskonvention“) ist erheblich komplexer. Es enthält in der Tat eine Formel zur Berechnung des Schadensersatzbetrages, die sich zusammensetzt aus fiktiven Durchforstungserlösen zu bestimmten Zeitpunkten, Abtriebserlösen, Umtriebszeiten und einem festgesetzten Kalkulationszinssatz, alles auf der Basis einer bestimmten Bewertungsmethode. Natürlich, wie könnte es anders sein, ist diese Formel angreifbar. Das Werk verwertet eine Fülle von Literatur und Quellen und ist in weiten Teilen lesenswert.

Das gilt auch für eine Vielzahl weiterer wissenschaftlicher (und gelegentlich weniger wissenschaftlicher) Veröffentlichungen, die das LFE natürlich alle kennt.

Einfacher zu lesen, vor allem aber rechtlich sehr fundiert ist die Analyse eines BGH-Urteils vom 04.11.2010 – III ZR 45/10 – von Fabian Müller vom Institut für Forstökonomie an der Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg. Der stellt zunächst richtig fest: „Der Ersatz wie auch die monetäre Bewertung von Verbissschäden im Wald sind aus juristischer wie auch methodischer Perspektive sehr umstritten“ .

Interessant und für die kontroverse Diskussion sehr belebend sind die Ausführungen von Suchant, Ammer und Reimoser in „FVA-einblick“ der forstlichen Versuchs- und Forschungsanstalt Baden-Württemberg (Nr. 3, Dezember 2011). Eine ebenfalls hochkomplexe Bewertungsformel für Wildschäden im Wald findet sich ferner in der vielzitierten „Verfahrensbeschreibung BISS“ des Systems gleichen Namens (Betriebszielorientierte Inventur und Schadensbewertung von Schalenwildverbiss) der HNE Eberswalde aus dem Jahre 2010

Zu den Zahlen- und Tabellenanhängern zählt auch das Ministerium für Forsten Umwelt und Verbraucherschutz Rheinland-Pfalz, das im Mai 2006 ein paar schöne „Hilfstabellen für die Bewertung von Verbiss- und Schälschäden“ herausgegeben hat. Wer diese Zahlen glaubt, kann sie benutzen – wir halten sie für simpel und nicht qualifizierbar genug. Und besonders schön haben es die Sachsen. Die haben, oder hatten 2004 jedenfalls, „Das Lebensministerium“ – sowas muss einem mal einfallen – in welchem es ein Landesforstpräsidium gab (heute wohl Staatsbetrieb Sachsenforst), dessen Referent für Waldbewertung und Inventuren Michael Schmid unter dem Titel „Wildschadensschätzung im Wald“ ein Qualifizierungsseminar für Wildschadensschätzer verfasst hat. Das bietet auf 62 (!) Seiten und auf rechtlichen Bewertungsgrundlagen, die wir für angreifbar, wenn nicht gar falsch, halten, und unter Verwendung der sächsischen Waldwertermittlungsrichtlinie „Waldwert 2000“ allerlei übernommene und selbst erfundene Formeln und schöne Tabellen, eine sehr gründliche tour d´hozizont durch die Waldschadensbewertung, garniert mit eindrucksvollen Bildern.

Absolut lesenswert und lehrreich, hätte dem Journalisten der MOZ mal zeigen können, wie komplex die Materie ist, die er so schlenkerhaft vor dem Leser ausbreitet. Hätte ihn aber wahrscheinlich überfordert, nehmen wir mal an.

Wir könnten noch ellenlang in die Literatur einsteigen, aber das lassen wir jetzt -. Es ist wohl klar geworden, wie das Problem aussieht. Eines sagt Müller in Auswertung des BGH-Urteils ganz richtig: „…sind die Gerichte der Meinung, dass sich der Umfang des Schadensersatzes von Verbissschäden an der Sachwertminderung des Bestandes zu orientieren hat und nicht an zukünftigen verbissbedingten Ertragseinbußen, da diese nur mit großer Unsicherheit vorhersehbar sind„. Hier könnte dieser Blogbeitrag bereits enden, denn das erledigt die Betrachtung des fiktiven Zukunftsschadens pro Baum!

Das deutsche Schadensrecht

Wie man sieht, haben wir es hier mit einer sehr anspruchsvollen Materie zu tun. Sie hat eine Menge des „Schweißes der Edlen“ (frei nach Klopstock) gekostet und eine Fülle kompliziertester Formeln und Tabellen hervorgebracht. Wenn es stimmt, dass das LFE in Eberswalde sich in diese Bemühungen einreihen will, dann hat es sich ganz schön was vorgenommen. Es könnte, wie das gerade für Forstleute so schön gesagt werden kann, „auf dem Holzweg“ sein.

Denn der Ursprung von allem liegt im deutschen Schadensersatzrecht. Inzwischen ist rechtlich ausgepaukt (nach zahlreichen abweichenden Rechtskonstruktionen in der Literatur mit völlig unterschiedlichen Rechtsfolgerungen), dass Wildschaden nach dem bürgerlichen Gesetzbuch zu beurteilen ist. Es handelt sich um eine verschuldensunabhängige Gefährdungshaftung, die nach zivilrechtlichen Grundsätzen des Rechts der unerlaubten Handlung ausgestaltet ist, was einen vollen Ersatz des Schadens einschließlich von Folgeschäden und entgangenem Gewinn einschließt.

Das kann man bedauern oder blöd finden, aber so isses!

Allerdings enthalten weder § 29 BjagdG noch § 249 BGB eine Definition dessen, was „Schaden“ eigentlich ist. Einigkeit herrscht darüber, dass er eine Vermögenseinbuße ist. Aber wie wird die bemessen? Nach § 31 BJagdG ist auf den Zeitpunkt der Ernte abzuheben. Auf den kann der Forstmann aber natürlich nicht warten. Also muss die zukünftige Einkommenseinbuße geschätzt und dann abgezinst ausgeglichen werden, und zwar in Geld.

Und da liegt der Hase im Pfeffer! Allerdings nicht im Wald, denn er verursacht keine Wildschäden.

Daher kommen nämlich die mathematischen Verrenkungen zur Ermittlung eines wahrscheinlichen in vielleicht 50 oder 80 oder so Jahren sich materialisierenden Vermögens-Minderwertes.

Der aber, und das ist das nach unserer Ansicht letzlich unlösbare Dilemma all dieser Schadensbewertungen, hängt ja nicht nur von der im Meldezeitraum (jeweils ein halbes Jahr nach Entstehung) geschätzt quantifizierten Schädigung eines noch jungen Baumes ab, der zum „Schadenszeitpunkt“, weil ihn dann sowieso keiner kaufen würde, noch garnichts wert ist – alles schon angreifbare Einzelheiten. Denn bis zur Reife passiert im Leben eines Baumes viel – vielleicht muss er sowieso gefällt werden, um den Bestand auszulichten, vielleicht fällt er Rückeschäden zum Opfer, vielleicht erwischt ihn der Eichenprozessionsspinner, oder sonstwas. Und wer weiß denn, ob die Menschen in 50 Jahren überhaupt noch Eichenfurnier haben wollen oder sich leisten können, und was der Klimawandel mit unseren Wäldern macht, und so weiter und so fort! Dazu sollte man unbedingt Müller lesen, der das anhand der Rechtsprechung des BGH hervorragend darlegt; allerdings ist er wie das Gericht der Ansicht, man könne letztlich einen Schaden feststellen. Wir halten das für eher, sagen wir mal, schwierig!

Vor allem: das deutsche Schadensersatzrecht kennt noch einen miesen Ausweg für den Ersatzpflichtigen: ihm darf nämlich nie die Möglichkeit abgeschnitten werden, einen anderen als den hypothetischen Schadensverlauf zu beweisen!

Und das verbietet eine formelhafte oder tabellarische festgelegte Schadenshöhe!

Lange Rede kurzer Sinn: Lassen wir das verdienstvolle LFE ruhig weiter werkeln, und regen wir uns nicht auf. Kein vernünftiger Jäger wird heute noch vollen Wildschadensersatz übernehmen, und kein Ersatzpflichtiger wird sich seine Rechte durcBaumschutzh wissenschaftlich angreifbare Formeln und Tabellen nehmen lassen. Waldbewirtschaftung und Wildbewirtschaftung sind zwei einander berührende und sich zum Teil überschneidende Nachhaltswirtschaften, die beide gesamtgesellschaftliche Aufgaben sind und nur im öffentlichen Interesse und damit im Interesse unseres Waldes und unseres Wildes betrieben werden können, wenn alle Beteiligten guten Willens sind.

Deshalb bin ich sicher:

Das LFE wird alle diese Worte behalten und in seinem Herzen bewegen (Lukas 2:19).

Ihr Dr. Wolfgang Lipps

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